Professor Kai Ambos has initiated a project on the foundational principles and concepts of Anglo-German Criminal Law and Justice. The project participants come from Germanic and Anglo-American jurisdictions, and have been carefully selected to reflect a diversity of backgrounds with either a more theoretical/normative or a more empirical focus. All are distinguished international scholars. The general editor of the project is Prof. Kai Ambos, the edito-rial committee consists of Prof. Antony Duff (University of Minnesota/ University of Stirling), Prof. Julian Roberts (University of Oxford) and Prof. Thomas Weigend (University of Cologne).

Criminal law and criminal justice is becoming increasingly globalised. The era in which individual jurisdictions developed their own codes, statutes and systems of justice with little regard to other systems and countries is long over. In its place there is a growing desire to develop common approaches to common problems and to learn from the diversity of current practice in differ-ent countries. That development, however, requires a thorough, systematic, multi-jurisdictional comparative analysis, of a kind that has not been provided by recent and existing comparative projects—which are still relatively infrequent, and typically focus on a specific topic or issue. The aim of such a systematic analysis would be to see whether it is possible to articulate a common grammar or set of foundational concepts that could ground productive trans-jurisdictional discussion and progress. This project will explore that possibility.

At present, attempts at trans-jurisdictional debate and agreement are too often beset by mutual misunderstanding. Although English is the new lingua franca in international and comparative criminal law (as well as in international criminal justice institutions), there are many ambiguities and uncertainties with regard to foundational criminal law concepts. The principal reason for this is that they do not exclusively originate from the English-speaking common law world but are to a great extent taken from the civil law jurisdictions of France, Germany and Italy. As a result, the application of these concepts in English – by and within international institutions and even in academic discourse – is often ambiguous or even misleading. Professionals working in these or-ganisations and academics engaged in collaborative comparative (criminal) law projects often do not understand each other, using the same terms with different meanings or different terms mean-ing the same. There is no consensual common language. One of the purposes of the current project is to see whether it is possible to develop such a common grammar for fundamental concepts. If such a grammar can be developed, this will facilitate and enhance collaborative, cross-jurisdictional exchanges, leading to comparative and theoretical insights.

To make the project manageable, it will initially focus on the Germanic (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) and principal Anglo-American jurisdictions (England and Wales, Scotland, the USA, and Canada), to establish whether they share a set of foundational concepts. In a second phase, we may extend the inquiry beyond these jurisdictions, to broaden the basis of our findings, and may include further civil law jurisdictions (particularly France, Italy, and Spain as well as Scan-dinavian countries); further, we will have to consider to look beyond Europe and North America—to Africa, to China, to Japan and Latin America. The method of analysis is comparative (multi-jurisdictional), analytical and empirical, with an initial focus—as noted above—on Germanic and Anglo-American jurisdictions.

The project group has already met to conduct a project ‘scoping’ meeting in Cambridge (in July 2016), followed by meetings in Göttingen (March 2017) and Oxford (September 2017). Further meetings are scheduled for Frankfurt am Main (March 2018), Edinburgh (September 2018), Zürich or Münster (Spring 2019) and possibly Galway (Autumn 2019). The intention is to mount two meetings each year, alternating between Germany and the UK.

Given the multijurisdictional and multidisciplinary approach of the project, we aim at having co-authored papers for different topics on Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure and Criminal Justice, with authors from different jurisdictions as well as theoretical and empirical backgrounds. The editorial committee, consisting of the General Editor, the Domain Editors and the Advisor, will take the final decision on publication of a paper. As to publications, we are in negotiations with Cambridge University Press which have a strong interest to publish the scholarly output of the project. A first publication is envisaged for 2018, with 10-12 papers of 10.000-15.000 words. Further volumes will follow, we envisage the publication of three volumes in total.

Participants

General Editor

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Kai Ambos (Georg-August-University of Göttingen)

Domain Editors

Criminal Law: Prof. Antony Duff (University of Stirling/ University of Edinburgh)

Criminal Procedure: Prof. Dr. Thomas Weigend (University of Cologne)

Criminal Justice: Prof. Julian Roberts (University of Oxford)

Authors

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Kai Ambos (Georg-August-University of Göttingen)

Prof. Dr. Stefanie Bock (Philipps-University Marburg)

Prof. Sir Anthony Bottoms (University of Cambridge)

Dr. Dominik Brodowski, LL.M. (UPenn) (Goethe-University Frankfurt a.M.)

Prof. Dr. Christoph Burchard, LL.M. (NYU) (Goethe-University Frankfurt a.M.)

Dr. Alessandro Corda (Queen's University Belfast)

Dr. Andrew Cornford (University of Edinburgh)

Dr. Antje du Bois-Pedain (University of Cambridge)

Dr. Matthew Dyson (University of Oxford)

Prof. Richard Frase (University of Minnesota)

Shannon Fyfe (Vanderbilt University, Nashville)

Prof. Dr. Sabine Gless (University of Basel)

Prof. Dr. Stefan Harrendorf (Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald)

Dr. Alexander Heinze, LL.M. (TCD) (Georg-August-University of Göttingen)

Prof. Dr. Katrin Höffler (Georg-August-University of Göttingen)

Prof. Dr. Tatjana Hörnle (Humboldt University of Berlin)

Jun.-Prof. Elisa Hoven (University of Cologne)

Prof. Neha Jain (University of Minnesota)

Prof. Máximo Langer (UCLA, California)

Prof. Dr. Frank Meyer (University of Zürich)

Prof. Dr. Carsten Momsen (FU Berlin)

Prof. Thomas O’Malley (NUI Galway)

Nicola Padfield (University of Cambridge)

Dr. Anneke Petzsche, MSc (Oxford) (Humboldt University of Berlin)

Prof. Dr. Ineke Regina Pruin (University of Bern)

Prof. Julian Roberts (University of Oxford)

Prof. Paul Roberts (University of Nottingham)

Prof. Jacqueline Ross (University of Illinois)

Prof. Robert Schehr (Northern Arizona University)

Dr. Findlay Stark (University of Cambridge)

Prof. Dr. Carl Friedrich Stuckenberg (University of Bonn)

Prof. Stephen C. Thaman (Saint Louis University)

Prof. Malcolm Thorburn (University of Toronto)  

Prof. Jenia Iontcheva Turner (SMU Dedman School of Law)

Prof. Richard Vogler (University of Sussex)

Prof. Alec Walen (Rutgers)

Prof. Dr. Thomas Weigend (University of Cologne)

Prof. Dr. Bettina Weißer (University of Cologne)

Prof. Lucia Zedner (University of Oxford)

Meetings

I. Göttingen, 27/28 March 2017

Participation (outline)
Antje du Bois-Pedain (Cambridge); Commentator Stefanie Bock (Marburg)

Normative Pluralism/structure (Codification, common law, general/special part, general principles etc.) (outline)
Matthew Dyson (Oxford); Commentator Paul Roberts (Nottingham)

Crimes of endangerment
Antony Duff (Stirling); Commentator Christoph Burchard (Frankfurt)

Sexual Crimes
Thomas O’Malley (Galway); Commentator Carl-Friedrich Stuckenberg (Bonn)

Charges (accusation, indictment)
Thomas Weigend (Köln); Commentator Neha Jain (Minnesota)

Criminal history enhancements at sentencing
Julian Roberts (Oxford); Commentator Stefan Harrendorf (Greifswald)

Action and omission (conduct)
Kai Ambos (Göttingen); Commentator Alec Walen (Rutgers)

II. Oxford, 18/19 September 2017

Structure in Criminal Legal Reasoning
Frank Meyer (Zürich)/ Matthew Dyson (Oxford)

Constitutional Criminal Law
Malcolm Thorburn (Toronto)/ Christoph Burchard (Frankfurt am Main)

Preparatory Offences
Findlay Stark (Cambridge)/ Stefanie Bock (Marburg)

Proportionality of Punishment/ Sentencing
Richard Frase (Minnesota); Commentators: Tom O'Malley (Galway)/ Carsten Momsen (Berlin)

Negotiated Justice
Jenia Turner (SMU Dedman School of Law, Dallas, Texas); Commentator Kai Ambos (Göttingen)

Due Process
Lucia Zedner (Oxford); Commentator Carl-Friedrich Stuckenberg (Bonn)

Concepts and Taxonomies of Criminal Procedure
Paul Roberts (Nottingham); Commentator Thomas Weigend (Köln)

III. Frankfurt am Main, 5/6 April 2018

Due Process
Carl-Friedrich Stuckenberg (Bonn), complementing Lucia Zedner's paper

Prosecutorial Discretion
Alexander Heinze (Göttingen)/ Shannon Fyfe (Vanderbilt)

Coercion (General, Coercive/ Investigative Measures)
Richard Vogler (Sussex)/ N.N.

Terrorist Offences
Andrew Cornford (Edinburgh)/ Anneke Petzsche (Berlin)

Admissibility/ non-use, exclusion of evidence
Stephen Thaman (Saint Louis)

Criminal History Enhancements at Sentencing
Stefan Harrendorf (Greifswald), complementing Julian Roberts' paper

Proportionality of Punishment/ Sentencing
Carsten Momsen (Berlin)/ Lisa Washington (Berlin), complementing Richard Frase's paper

Consent in Sexual Crimes
Tom O'Malley (Galway)/ Elisa Hoven (Köln)

IV. Edinburgh, 1/2 September 2018

The Origins of Civil and Common Law in Comparative Criminal Justice
Máximo Langer (UCLA, California)

Participation
Antje du Bois-Pedain (Cambridge)

Responsibility for Acts of Others
Neha Jain (Minnesota)/ Sabine Gless (Basel)

Negotiated Justice
Thomas Weigend (Cologne)/ Jenia Turner (SMU Dedman School of Law, Dallas, Texas)

Responsibility for Outcomes (Causation/ Imputation)
Bettina Weißer (Köln)/ Alec Walen (Rutgers)

Special Investigative Measures (DNA, online search, etc.)
Dominik Brodowski (Frankfurt a.M.)/ Jacqueline Ross (Univ. Illinois)

 

V. Zürch, Spring 2019

Wrongful Convictions
Robert Schehr (Northern Arizona University)/ Stefan Harrendorf (Greifswald)

VI. Galway (tentative), Autumn 2019
 

Topics

General Principles/ Concepts/ Methods

  • Due Process (Lucia Zedner/ Carl-Friedrich Stuckenberg)
  • Structure in Criminal Legal Reasoning (Matt Dyson/ Frank Meyer)
  • Constitutional Criminal Law (Malcolm Thorburn/ Christoph Burchard)
  • The Origins of Civil and Common Law in Comparative Criminal Justice (Maximo Langer)
  • (In)determinacy (legality principle, nullum crimen) (Tom O'Malley/ Bettina Weißer)
  • Criminalisation Criteria (harm, Rechtsgut, violation of rights, interests) (N.N.)

Criminal Law

General Principles/ General Part

  • Crimes of endangerment (Antony Duff/ Tatjana Hörnle)
  • Omissions (Kai Ambos)
  • Preparatory Offences, incl. attempts (Findlay Stark/ Stefanie Bock)
  • Responsibility for Outcomes (Causation/ Imputation) (Alec Walen/ Bettina Weißer)
  • Responsibility for Acts of Others (Neha Jain/ Sabine Gless)
  • Participation (Antje du Bois-Pedain)
  • Criminal Negligence (N.N.)
  • Grounds Excluding Responsibility/Defences (Exculpation) (N.N.)

Crimes/ Special Part

  • Consent in Sexual Crimes (Tom O'Malley/ Elisa Hoven)
  • Terrorist Offences (Andrew Cornford/ Anneke Petzsche)
  • Economic Crime (Carsten Momsen/ N.N.)
  • Cybercrime (Alexander Heinze/ N.N.)
  • Murder/Homicide (Stefanie BockN.N.)
  • Property Offences (N.N.)
  • Regulatory Offences (Administrative offences, Contraventions) (N.N.)

Criminal Procedure

  • Charging (Thomas Weigend/ Jenia Turner)
  • Negotiated Justice (Thomas Weigend/ Jenia Turner)
  • Coercion (General, Coercive/Investigative Measures) (Richard Vogler/ N.N.)
  • Information Management (Paul Roberts/ N.N.)
  • Special Investigative Measures (DNA, Online Search, etc.) (Dominik Brodowski/ Jacqueline Ross)
  • Search for Truth (John Jackson/ N.N.)
  • Appeal (Factual, Legal) and Revision (Carl-Friedrich Stuckenberg/ N.N.)
  • Victims (Status, participation) (N.N.)
  • Abbreviated/Simplified Procedures (N.N.)
  • Admissibility/ Non-Use, Exclusion of Evidence (Stephen Thaman)
  • Res judicata (‘chose jugée’, ‘materielle Rechtskraft’) (N.N.)


Criminal Justice

  • Criminal History Enhancements at Sentencing (Julian Roberts/ Stefan Harrendorf)
  • Proportionality of Punishment/Sentencing (Richard Frase/ Carsten Momsen)
  • Prosecutorial Discretion (Alexander Heinze/ Shannon Fyfe)
  • Structuring Judicial Discretion at Sentencing: Forms of Guidance (Julian Roberts/ Anneke Petzsche)
  • Implementation of Sentences (Nicola Padfield/ Katrin Höffler)
  • Actors (Police, Prosecutor, Judge, Parole Board/ Judge of Execution) (Carsten Momsen/ Lisa Washington)
  • Collateral Consequences of Conviction and Offenders’ Re-Entry (Alessandro Corda/ Ineke Regina Pruin)
  • Executing Punishment/ Enforcement of Sentences (N.N.)
  • Censure (N.N.)
  • Efficiency (N.N.)
  • Mercy and Forgiveness (N.N.)
  • Wrongful convictions (Robert Schehr/ N.N.)